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By David Reed Greenwood; G L Kingsbury; J G Cleland; United States. Environmental Protection Agency. Office of Research and Development

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The electrons emitted by the photocathode are accelerated to the first dynode by the voltage applied to the tube, and release a greater number of electrons on striking the dynode. These electrons are in turn accelerated to the second dynode, and so on down the PMT, until the anode collects an amplified signal pulse whose size is proportional to the energy deposited in the NaI(TI) crystal. g. g. 125I) which may be severely or totally attenuated by the window material of any previously described detector.

The results actually follow what is known as a "Poisson distribution", a statistical theory which applies to situations where the probability of an event is low, but a significant number of events occur anyway because they are drawn from a large population. In our case, there are billions of unstable nuclei with the potential for transformation, but relatively few of them undergo the transformation in any given time interval. (Poisson originally tested his theory by perusing the records of Prussian cavalry regiments to determine how many soldiers had died each year from being kicked by their horses).

The reasons for this are explained in the next chapter. M. exposure meter are available for use as personnel monitors, replacing the previously described pocket ion chamber in some instances. While more expensive, these dosimeters have an easily read digital display, emit an audible "beep� as a constant indication of exposure rate, and some models can be programmed to sound a continuous warning at a A3-6 CHAPTER A3 preset accumulated exposure or exposure rate. These features perhaps make them more suitable for infrequent use by relatively untrained staff, such as those in hospital emergency departments.

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