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By M. Glasius

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Extra info for A Human Security Doctrine for Europe: Project, Principles, Practicalities (Routledge Advances in International Relations and Global Politics)

Example text

But such societies are also populated by citizens who form ‘zones of peace’, as Kaldor (1999) has described them in the case of the former Yugoslavia. It can be safely assumed that the majority of the population in conflict-prone states are strongly opposed to the continued violence. But often the short-term requirements for controlling violence result in warlords, paramilitary groups, rebels or disbanded combatants being co-opted and thus legitimized. This usually happens at the expense of assistance to the ordinary citizens who are capable of rebuilding a society without resorting to violence.

A corollary of this commitment is that operations by the European Union should have legal accountability to those who are ‘operated’ upon (see Flechtner, Chapter 15). There should be not only codes of behaviour but also sanctions for breaking the codes. In order to improve clarity, for policy-makers, for deployed personnel and for the local population, we recommend that the EU develop a legal framework for the deployment of its human security missions. The European Security Strategy speaks of ‘effective multilateralism’ (Council of the European Union 2003).

Yet they are usually treated by the international community as short-term problems to be solved as quickly as possible. When insecurity persists and violence affects large sections of the population, ready-made policy responses are being implemented: conflict management and mediation, humanitarian intervention with civil and military means, emergency relief and aid, peacekeeping, peace enforcement and peace-building, post-conflict reconstruction and nation-building, democratization and development, and so forth (Pape 1997; Debiel and Nuscheler 1996; OECD/DAC 2001).

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