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G. Kluge & MJ. Eckardt, 1970. A numerical approach to phylogenetic systematics. Syst. , 19: 172-191. Funk, VA, 1985. Phylogenetic patterns and hybridization. Ann. Missouri Bot. , 72: 681-715. , 1984. Generic criteria in Enchytraeidae (Oligochaeta) family. Biologia (Bratislava), 39: 163-172. G. E. Strauss, 1985. Ontogeny and Systematics. Ann. Rev. Eco!. , 16: 247-268. , 1964. Notes sur quelques oligochetes Enchytraeidae, present surs les plages du Bassin d'Arcachon. -verb. Soc. , Bordeaux, 101: 87-91.
Thus, apparent character conflicts found in otherwise conservative, complex morphological characters would be considered a basis for proposing for hypotheses of non-hierarchical taxon relationships. Other data are used to corroborate or falsify the hypothesis. Some of the more useful forms of data for substantiating hybridization come from karyotyping (chromosome numbers and morphology) and allozyme studies. Secondary support can come from morphogenic irregularities in particular organs, especially reproductive, reduced sperm viability and sympatric distributions.
The third, fourth and fifth criteria concern the particular distribution and types of character conflicts found. The fifth will be of particular significance if the hybrid taxa are polyploids but requires that the parent lineage has not diverged since the origin of the hybrid and that autapomorphies have not been excluded from the data. This kind of character distribution may also occur with autopolyploids. Thus, apparent character conflicts found in otherwise conservative, complex morphological characters would be considered a basis for proposing for hypotheses of non-hierarchical taxon relationships.