By Stephen P. Cohen, Sunil Dasgupta
India's transforming into affluence has led specialists to foretell an incredible rearmament attempt. The second-most populous kingdom on the planet is commencing to wield the commercial strength anticipated of this sort of behemoth. Its border with Pakistan is a tinderbox, the subcontinent continues to be prone to non secular extremism, and an army competition among India and China may erupt sooner or later. India has lengthy had the inducement for modernizing its military—it now has the assets besides. What should still we think to determine sooner or later, and what's going to be the most probably ramifications? In Arming with out Aiming, Stephen Cohen and Sunil Dasgupta resolution these an important questions.
India's militia wish new guns worthy greater than $100 billion. yet each one of these guns needs to come from international providers as a result of the mess ups of India's indigenous examine and improvement. guns providers from different countries are queuing up in New Delhi. an extended dating among India and Russian brands is going again to the chilly struggle. extra lately, India and Israel have constructed robust army alternate ties. Now, a brand new army courting with the USA has generated the best desire for army transformation in India.
Against this backdrop of recent affluence and newfound entry to international army know-how, Cohen and Dasgupta examine India's army modernization to discover haphazard army switch that lacks political path, suffers from balkanization of army association and doctrine, is still constrained by means of slender potential making plans, and is pushed by way of the pursuit of expertise unfastened from military-strategic targets. the nature of army swap in India, in particular the disorder within the political-military institution with reference to procurement, is finally the results of a old doctrine of strategic restraint in position due to the fact that Nehru. In that context, its method of arming with out strategic goal continues to be achievable as India seeks great-power lodging of its upward thrust and doesn't are looking to glance threatening. the chance lies in its modernization efforts precipitating a interval of strategic statement or contributing to misperception of India's intentions through Pakistan and China, its such a lot fast rivals.
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Additional resources for Arming Without Aiming: India's Military Modernization
Third, should the country make or buy weapons (a question raised by the endemic failure of defense research in India)? Fourth, if hardware and military technology must be imported, should the decision be shaped by economic, technical, ideological, or strategic alignments? indd 31 7/12/10 4:58 PM 32â•‡ /â•‡ struggling with reform political, military, and bureaucratic leaders the confidence to make judgment calls in the selection of weapons? The ghost of the Bofors howitzer has haunted Indian defense procurement since the mid-1980s.
Furthermore, the structure of the weapons market is unlike most others. The value of the market may be large, but unit volumes and the number of buyers and sellers are limited. In most countries, the national government is the only buyer and can set prices to its own advantage or proscribe sales. When weapons manufacturers wish to sell to other parties—mainly other governments—they require the approval of their own governments. Given the asymmetrical power of the government in the market, private investment in the manufacture of weapons occurs under very constrained conditions that ultimately subsidize the development process.
But the inability—and unwillingness—of the political leadership to coordinate the demands of the armed forces with the supply from the military research agencies has meant that military modernizations in India have been disorganized and of limited strategic value. A high-level committee chaired by Vijay Kelkar, a former secretary of the Ministry of Finance, was established in 2004. Its mandate was broad, and it urged a number of steps that would professionalize the defense-acquisition process and bring private enterprise into the defense-production system.