By Deborah A. Rosen
The First Seminole battle of 1816–1818 performed a severe position in shaping how the U.S. demarcated its spatial and felony limitations through the early years of the republic. Rooted in notions of yankee exceptionalism, happen future, and racism, the criminal framework that emerged from the battle laid the foundation for the Monroe Doctrine, the Dred Scott choice, and U.S. westward enlargement over the process the 19th century, as Deborah Rosen explains in Border Law.
When normal Andrew Jackson’s troops invaded Spanish-ruled Florida within the overdue 1810s, they seized forts, destroyed cities, and captured or killed Spaniards, Britons, Creeks, Seminoles, and African-descended humans. As Rosen exhibits, americans vigorously debated those competitive activities and raised urgent questions about the rights of wartime prisoners, using army tribunals, the character of sovereignty, the foundations for working throughout territorial borders, the validity of preemptive moves, and the position of race in identifying criminal rights. Proponents of Jackson’s Florida campaigns claimed a spot for the USA as a member of the eu diplomatic group whereas even as announcing a neighborhood sphere of effect and new ideas in regards to the program of overseas law.
American justifications for the incursions, which allotted rights alongside racial strains and allowed huge leeway for extraterritorial motion, cast a extra unified nationwide id and set a precedent for an assertive overseas policy.
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Extra resources for Border Law: The First Seminole War and American Nationhood
Prospect Bluff and Amelia Island While negotiations between the United States and Spain languished in 1816 and 1817, the United States sent troops to deal with two small, isolated areas that were ostensibly within Spanish territory but had been taken over by people deemed to be threatening to the United States. ) The first of the two American military operations targeted the Prospect Bluff fort built in 1814 under the direction of British naval officers Edward Nicolls and George Woodbine. Many Americans called for the destruction of the garrison.
S. troops might enter Florida in pursuit of Indians. In late March 1818, when Onís issued his assertive defense of Florida officials, the United States was already at war with the Seminoles. -Â�Spanish Relations and the Florida Campaignsâ•‡ •â•‡ 27 September 1817, and perhaps as early as the Creek War of 1813–1814, after which surviving Creeks fled to Florida and joined forces with Seminoles to resist American encroachments. In January 1818, the Senate mentioned ongoing military operations against the Seminoles when it requested a presidential report on how the military was supplying American troops participating in those operations.
A week and a half later, a party of Indians responded by killing Lieutenant Richard W. Scott and dozens of Americans in his supply ship traveling up the Apalachicola River toward Fort Scott. The latter incident became a rallying cry for frontier people and military leaders who demanded a more aggressive defense against Indians, and, later, Americans would point to the massacre as a prime justification for invading Florida. Then, in February, Seminoles murdered a woman and her two young children in southeastern Georgia near the Florida border.